RISC Pipeline in Computer Architecture

RISC Pipeline in Computer Architecture:- In this post, we discuss RISC Pipeline.


RISC Pipeline in Computer Architecture


Among the characteristics attributed to RISC is its ability to use an efficient instruction pipeline. The simplicity of the instruction set can be utilized to implement an instruction pipeline using a small number of suboperations with each being executed in one clock cycle. Because of the fixed-length instruction format, the decoding of the operation can occur at the same time as the register selection. All data manipulation instructions have register-to-register operations. Since all operands are in registers, there is no need for calculating an effective address or fetching of operands from memory. Therefore, the instruction pipeline can be implemented with two or three segments. One segment fetches the instruction from program memory, and the other segment executes the instruction in the ALU. A third segment may be used to store the result of the ALU operation in a destination register.

The data transfer instructions in RISC are limited to load and store instructions. These instructions use register indirect addressing. They usually need three or four stages in the pipeline. To prevent conflicts between memory access to fetch an instruction and to load or store an operand, most RISC machines use two separate buses with two memories: one for storing the instructions and the other for storing the data. The two memories can sometimes operate at the same speed as the CPU clock and are referred to as cache memories.

one of the major advantages of RISC is its ability to execute instructions at the rate of one per clock cycle. It is not possible to expect that every instruction is fetched from memory and executed in one clock cycle. What is done, in effect, is to start each instruction with each clock cycle and to pipeline the processor to achieve the goal of single-cycle instruction execution. The advantage of RISC over CISC (complex instruction set computer) is that RISC can achieve pipeline segments, requiring just one clock cycle, while CISC uses many segments in its pipeline, with the longest segment requiring two or more clock cycles.

Another characteristic of RISC is the support given by the compiler that translates the high-level language program into a machine language program Instead of designing hardware to handle the difficulties associated with data conflicts and branch penalties, RISC processors rely on the efficiency of the compiler to detect and minimize the delays encountered with these problems. The following examples show how a compiler can optimize the machine language program to compensate for pipeline conflicts.

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